The composite slabs are made of BubbleDeck type slab elements with spherical gaps, poured in place on transversal and longitudinal directions. By introducing the gaps leads to a 30…50% lighter slab which reduces the loads on the columns, walls and foundations, and of course of the entire building. These slab elements have a bottom and an upper concrete part connected with vertical ribs that go around the gaps. The reinforcement of the plates is made of two meshes one at the bottom part and one at the upper part that can be tied or welded. The distances between the bars correspond to the dimensions of the bubbles that are to be embodied and the quantity of the reinforcement from the longitudinal and the transversal ribs of the slab. The two mashes are connected after placing the spheres into places in order to form a rigid shell. The bubbles are made by embodying high density polypropylene in the concrete, arranged according to the project and placed between the reinforcement meshes. The material that are made of don’t react chemically with the concrete or the reinforcement, it has no porosity and has enough rigidity and strength to take over the loads as much as from the pouring of the concrete as from the subsequent phases of this process.
The nominal diameter of the gaps may be of: 180, 225, 270, 315 or 360 mm. More…
|Jinping-I Dam||305 m (1,001 ft)||Concrete arch||China||Yalong Jiang|
|Nurek Dam||300 m (980 ft)||Embankment, earth-fill||Tajikistan||Vakhsh|
|Xiaowan Dam||292 m (958 ft)||Concrete arch||China||Lancang|
|Xiluodu Dam||285.5 m (937 ft)||Concrete arch||China||Jinsha Jiang More…|
On field practice
Clay bricks are classified as first class, second class, third class and fourth class based on their physical and mechanical properties.
First class bricks
1. The completely burned and are of deep red, cherry or copper color .
2. Square and rectangular surfaces, straight edges and sharp corners should be smooth and parallel.
3. These should be free of cracks and stones.
4. They should have a similar composition.
5. With an impression of a zero- one nail is kept in the brick.
6. Fractured surface of the brick and limestone lumps should not show.
7. The two bricks are struck against each other should be a metallic or ringing sound.
8. Submerged in cold water for 24 hours, the water absorption of the dry weight should be 12-15 %.
9. Crushing strength of the brick must be less than 10 N/mm2. The limit varies across the country with various government organizations.
Uses: These are used for pointing, exposed face work in masonry structures, flooring and reinforced brick work.
Second class bricks More…
Bamboo Reinforced Concrete
Concrete has great compressive strength but needs more materials for tension. In the past, the steel used to reinforce concrete low tensile load. Furthermore, other materials are also used as fiber reinforcement. The ‘green’ construction, which seems to be limited to the physical structure embodied energy. We think highly of the rapid turnover and reinforces the need to find materials that can serve as. At the same time, the material will have to work in extreme conditions correctly. In 1966 at Naval Engineering laboratory released the document of “BAMBOO REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION” and noticed the ultimate use of bamboo as reinforcement for construction. There are so many types of bamboos are available in the world for best properties for this use. BAMBOO can replace the steel reinforcement in construction if it will be coated by decay resistance cover. As like steel, bamboo can be bent by applying heat which can form pressure. By this method Bamboos can be bent in to C shape and like in stirrups. It can be placed either wet or dry bamboo. To avoid moisture in Bamboo waterproof coating added to the exterior. This coating can avoid the swelling of Bamboo during construction. Waterproof coating is required because without this bamboo will swell during construction and there are chances of damage of structure.
Cool roofs offer specially designed to reflect the sun and reduce thermal emittance. In other words, they reflect more sunlight than your average roof, and the top of a building in the hot or cold air leaking roof. Under the intense heat of the summer sun, dark ceiling tile can reach 150 degrees Fahrenheit (65.5 degrees Celsius) temperatures. Reflected in a cool roof can reduce more than 50 degrees. More…
Now its time gone to remember all the unit weight …
Just remember a simple formula and get all the unit weight of reinforcement ..
And the formula is …..
M20 = 1:1.5:3
Volume = 1+1.5+3=5.5
Total volume ingredients for using =1.57
Volume of broken stone Require = (3/5.5) x 1.57 = 0.856 m3
Volume of sand Require = (1.5/5.5) x 1.57 = 0.471 m3
Volume of cement = (1/5.5) x 1.57 = 0.285 m3
= 0.285 x1440 = 411 kg
For 1m3 of M20 (1:1.5:3)
Broken stone = 0.856 m3
Sand = 0.472 m3
Cement = 8.22 bag
you can simply calculate quantity of cement of all the grade of concrete by mentioned method….
Construction Of Statue Of Jesus Christ
Local engineer Heitor da Silva Costa designed the statue; it was sculpted by Polish-French sculptor Paul Landowski. A group of engineers and technicians studied Landowski’s submissions and the decision was made to build the structure out of reinforced concrete (designed by Albert Caquot) instead of steel, more suitable for the cross-shaped statue. The outer layers are soapstone, chosen for its enduring qualities and ease of use. Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931 and cost the equivalent of US$250,000 ($3,300,000 in 2014). The monument was opened on October 12, 1931. The statue was meant to be lit by a battery of floodlights triggered remotely by shortwave radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, stationed 5,700 miles (9,200 km) away in Rome, but poor weather affected the signal and it had to be lit by workers in Rio.
You are not seeing any National Highway, Its Aerial View of Narmada Canal Gujarat.
Narmada Main Canal is a contour canal. It is the biggest lined irrigation canal in the world. It is about 458 km. long up to Gujarat -Rajasthan border and 74 kms further in Rajasthan. More…